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quick_start_guide_to_upgrading_to_devuan_and_configuring_minimalism [2018/02/20 08:50]
chillfan Add note this page should be removed.
quick_start_guide_to_upgrading_to_devuan_and_configuring_minimalism [2018/02/23 19:10] (current)
chillfan remove document and link to updated version instead
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-dev1fanboy: should be removed. Is anybody using this? Please mention soon.. +This document ​is long since outdated ​and the latest iteration ​can be found [[https://friendsofdevuan.org/doku.php/community:migrate-jessie-minimalism|here]]
- +
-//​**Editor'​s note:** this article is posted (almost) verbatim from an original post on the DNG mailing list on 3 November 2015 by '​dev1fanboy'​. By agreement with the original author it is posted here under a [[http://​creativecommons.org/​licenses/​by-sa/​4.0/​|Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0)]]. ​This license applies only to this article, for which purpose it replaces the standard documentation license for this wiki.// +
- +
-\\ +
- +
- +
-====== Quick start guide to uprading to Devuan and configuring minimalism ====== +
- +
-There are a lot of people talking about minimalism in Devuan and some may be wondering if they can upgrade to Devuan. The answer ​is yes, you can upgrade to Devuan right now and expect it to work with few if any problems in the stable branch - which is not yet announced stable but is clearly a lot better than alpha quality as you might have heard mentioned on devuan.org. I am currently putting in a little research before writing a more full guide to upgrading, installing and getting more minimalism out of Devuan. Hopefully I will be starting a wiki for all this info and more to go into in the near future, but for now I want to just put it out there for people trying to upgrade their current system or get more minimalism in their system.  +
- +
-Let's get started. \\ +
-\\ +
- +
-===== 1) Upgrading Debian to Devuan Stable (aka Jessie 1.0) ===== +
- +
-You can upgrade to Devuan Jessie 1.0 from either Debian Wheezy or from  +
-Debian Jessie. For other branches you are on your own for now, and I  +
-suggest avoiding upgrades to Devuan testing (ascii) for now until after  +
-the official stable release. +
- +
-First simply open a terminal and type: +
- +
-<​code>​user@debian:​~$ sudo -s</​code>​ +
- +
-Enter your user password. +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Or if sudo is not available:​ +
- +
-<​code>​user@debian:​~$ su</​code>​ +
- +
-Enter your root password. +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Now we can continue with the upgrade. You need to edit the sources.list  +
-configuration file so that apt will be getting packages only from the  +
-devuan mirror (there is just one for now): +
- +
-<​code>​root@debian:~# nano /etc/apt/​sources.list</​code>​ +
- +
-Comment out **ALL** current lines in your sources.list and add the Devuan  +
-mirror with the Jessie (stable) branch. This is roughly how it should  +
-look: +
- +
-<​code>#​deb http://​ftp.us.debian.org/debian wheezy main +
-deb http://​packages.devuan.org/merged jessie main</​code>​ +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Now we need to get the devuan keyring from the repoistory so we can  +
-authenticate packages: +
- +
-<​code>​root@debian:​~#​ apt-get update +
-root@debian:​~#​ apt-get install devuan-keyring</​code>​ +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Many people coming over to Devuan will be hoping to escape the web of  +
-systemd in the process – if this is your choice you need to specify  +
-your init system now before you proceed. I will be using sysvinit in  +
-this example as it is what I have tested – systemd init will be removed  +
-if present: +
- +
-<​code>​root@debian:​~#​ apt-get install sysvinit-core</​code>​ +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-The base-files package will be installed automatically in the case of  +
-an upgrade from Debian Wheezy, but it has been reported that this  +
-package will need to be selected manually when upgrading from Jessie.  +
-Either way we can do this now: +
- +
-<​code>​root@debian:​~#​ apt-get install base-files</​code>​ +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Start the system upgrade with: +
- +
-<​code>​root@debian:​~#​ apt-get dist-upgrade</​code>​ +
- +
-Depending on your connection speed it could take a while, grab yourself  +
-a drink. +
- +
-Once finished you will be using Devuan GNU/​Linux. +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Do some optional cleaning up: +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ apt-get autoremove --purge +
-root@devuan:​~#​ apt-get autoclean</​code>​ +
- +
-The first command will remove any '​orphaned'​ dependencies from your  +
-previous install including unwanted configurations for those packages.  +
-I highly recommend this because it's good security practice. The second  +
-command clears up all cached packages except for those that are  +
-installed on the running system, reclaiming a little disk space. +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Now you should simply reboot so that you are using the kernel shipped  +
-with Devuan: +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ reboot</​code>​ +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-If in the upgrade process gnome was removed do not panic, the reason  +
-for this is it depends on systemd and you have opted for sysvinit. The  +
-default desktop environment in Devuan is XFCE: +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ apt-get install xfce4</​code>​ +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Check that you can start your desktop environment:​ +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ su - username +
-user@devuan:​~$ startxfce4</​code>​ +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-If it all works you can add a display manager safely for when you next  +
-reboot: +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ apt-get install slim</​code>​ +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-===== 2) Configure ​minimalism ​in the system ===== +
- +
-Thanks to a tip given to me by a fellow minimalist from #debianfork  +
-(unnamed for now until I talk to them) you will be able to debloat your  +
-system in a very neat way. This is completely optional and may be done  +
-either before or after the upgrade. We are going to configure apt to  +
-ignore all '​recommended'​ packages in Debian/​Devuan as the majority of  +
-these often will not make sense to be there. There are some exceptions  +
-where recommends should definitely be installed and we will take care  +
-of this as well. +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-First use an editor to make the necessary changes: +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ nano /​etc/​apt/​apt.conf.d/​01lean</​code>​ +
- +
-Add the following lines: +
- +
-<​code>​APT::​Install-Suggests "​0";​ +
-APT::​Install-Recommends "​0";​ +
-APT::​AutoRemove::​SuggestsImportant "​false";​ +
-APT::​AutoRemove::​RecommendsImportant "​false";</​code>​ +
- +
-Press the Ctrl and X keys together to save and quit. +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Now we are going to retroactively remove all recommended packages,  +
-along with any suggests you may have pulled in. Adjust the above  +
-accordingly to your needs if you still want either suggests or  +
-recommends. Before proceeding we will protect the ca-certificates  +
-package from getting removed along with isc-dhcp-common if it is  +
-installed. The ca-certificates package contains ssl certificates from  +
-certificate authorities and naturally you will want this for any system  +
-where you will be using a browser (if you don't know then you need it).  +
-The isc-dhcp-common package takes care of automatic network  +
-configuration via dhcp on boot (see man 5 interfaces),​ if you don't  +
-know what this means then you need this package too.  +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ apt-get install ca-certificates isc-dhcp-common</​code>​ +
- +
-This will manually select these packages and they will now not be  +
-removed. If you are asked to configure the ca-certificates package by a  +
-dialog screen you should answer to always trust new certificates  +
-authorities to avoid having to manually select them. +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Now all that needs to be done is remove the packages we have opted out  +
-of: +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ apt-get autoremove --purge</​code>​ +
- +
-The now '​orphaned'​ recommends and suggests will be retroactively  +
-removed, cutting away some fat. Unused configuration files for those  +
-packages will also be removed. Check the list of packages to be removed  +
-before proceeding and make notes of packages you are sure you want to  +
-keep so you can install them later (man apt-get for details).  +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Some optional cleaning up: +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ apt-get autoclean</​code>​ +
- +
-Unwanted archives will be removed from the package cache, if any. +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-===== 3) What about removing dbus? ===== +
- +
-Sadly XFCE depends on dbus and so do many other packages, there will be  +
-several solutions to removing dbus but you may have to compromise a  +
-bit.  +
- +
-A quick list of window managers that do not depend on dbus with  +
-suggestions from a couple of #debianfork regs: +
- +
-  * fluxbox +
-  * blackbox +
-  * openbox +
-  * fvwm +
-  * fvwm-crystal +
-  * icewm +
- +
-For a graphical browser I suggest iceweasel, you might also like: +
- +
-  * epiphany +
-  * links2 +
-  * dillo +
- +
-For example: +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ apt-get install fluxbox bbkeys menu iceweasel +
-root@devuan:​~#​ apt-get purge dbus</​code>​ +
- +
-Check the list of packages to be purged carefully before proceeding to  +
-ensure you really want to do this.  +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Login to your user account, set your WM in the xinit file and start the  +
-X server: +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ su - user +
-user@devuan:​~$ echo "exec fluxbox"​ > .xinitrc +
-user@devuan:​~$ startx</​code>​ +
- +
-You can now login by the console each time at boot and type startx.  +
-Information on display managers will come later, for now you should do  +
-some research if you need this. +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-In the process of removing dbus you might have noticed the gvfs package  +
-being removed which is used for USB automounting,​ this is expected as  +
-it depends on dbus. A simple alternative to USB auto-mounting is to put  +
-your user in the disk group and set the possible mount points in fstab.  +
-You will then be able to mount your USB disks with ease. Further  +
-information may appear ​here after a little research on the topic of  +
-auto-mounting and graphical file managers. +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ adduser yourusername disk +
-root@devuan:​~#​ cp /etc/fstab /​etc/​fstab.backup +
-root@devuan:​~#​ nano /​etc/​fstab</​code>​ +
- +
-At the bottom of the fstab simply add the following:​ +
- +
-<​code>/​dev/​sdb1 ​       /​media/​usb0 ​   auto    user,​noauto ​   0 0 +
-/​dev/​sdc1 ​       /​media/​usb1 ​   auto    user,​noauto ​   0 0</​code>​ +
- +
-An important thing here is that '​user'​ mode is set as it allows your  +
-user to mount the disk where usually only root can do that. The  +
-'​noauto'​ option specifies the filesystem will not be mounted at boot.  +
-See man 5 fstab and man mount for more details. +
- +
-This is based on a single hard disk system. Your mount points may be  +
-different, if so you will need to adapt this if /dev/sdb1 or /dev/sdc1  +
-are already in use in the fstab. If everything is correct hit Ctrl and  +
-X together to save and exit. +
- +
-\\ +
- +
-Now create the mountpoints:​ +
- +
-<​code>​root@devuan:​~#​ mkdir /​media/​usb0 +
-root@devuan:​~#​ mkdir /​media/​usb1</​code>​ +
- +
-You should now plug in your usb drive(s) and test that it works: +
- +
-<​code>​user@devuan:​~$ mount /​media/​usb0 +
-user@devuan:​~$ mount /​media/​usb1</​code>​ +
- +
-When done unmount: +
- +
-<​code>​user@devuan:​~$ umount /​media/​usb0 +
-user@devuan:​~$ umount /​media/​usb1</​code>​ +
- +
----- +
- +
-There you have it, a retro style Devuan install that wouldn'​t be out of  +
-place before systemd, dbus and other madness became the trend for  +
-GNU/Linux.  +
- +
-As you might have noticed It's a very smooth upgrade to Devuan in the  +
-here and now, not much different if you simply upgraded your Debian  +
-system. With a little more work you can get a reasonably minimal system  +
-as well and remove dbus if you want to.  +
- +
-//Enjoy Devuan!// +